The most complete RFID knowledge 2019 ?
If you are going to use RFID technology, please learn this article, it will help you know what RFID is? How to choose the RFID products for your solution?
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a small RFID sensor microchip with RFID antenna inside a housing that can be read at short range or long range via radio waves by a RFID reader. The RFID can be close together or far apart and are used for everything from credit cards, to inventory tracking to ticketing. RFID Components are including RFID card or RFID Tag (Transponder), a Reader, an Antenna. The RFID Reader and Antenna are enclosed into a single housing; sometimes they are 2 separate components. Sometimes there is added to this architecture an Interface which can translate data into other communication protocols and/or manage a network of many Readers.
What are the standards protocols of RFID ?
The protocols are called the air-interface protocols, and there are many " RFID standards" for such protocols, depending on the type of RFID system used. Here are a few of the most common air-interface protocol standards ratified by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO):
ISO 14443: This high-frequency (HF) standard is designed to have a short read range and include encryption, since it was created for proximity cards. What that means is that it was created for secure payments.
ISO 15693: This HF standard was developed for vicinity cards. It has no encryption and a longer read range than ISO 14443-based systems. It is used in many access-control systems, but has also been employed for inventory management and other applications.
ISO 18000-3: This HF standard, developed for item management, has never really caught on. Most companies simply use ISO 15693 for item management.
Near Field Communication: While not an official ISO standard, NFC is based on ISO 14443 and adds some additional capabilities, such as the ability of a reader to emulate a tag. NFC will also incorporate ISO 15693 over time, so you will be able to use an NFC-enabled phone to enter a building.
ISO 18000-6C: This ultrahigh-frequency (UHF) standard is based on the EPC Gen 3 air-interface protocol. Although there is an ISO 1800-6A and an ISO 1800-6B, it is ISO 18000-6C that is widely used for passive UHF systems.
ISO 24730: This protocol governs the communication of active RFID transponders operating at 2.45 GHz, and is used in real-time location systems.
RFID Frequency Expert Interview ?
This RF frequency was the RFID industry’s foundation, since the early 1980’s. Frequency refers to the power size of the radio waves used to communicate between system components. RFID systems throughout the world operate in low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF), and ultra-high frequency (UHF) bands.
Different RFID frequencies with different Read ranges are typically inches to several feet.
Low-Frequency (LF) RFID
In the late 1990’s the RFID industry began to gravitate toward 125 KHz as a standard. Most all RFID systems today are based on 125 KHz however there is an ISO standard (11784 & 11785) based on 134.2 KHz used in the animal market. RFID system operates at a lower frequency, it has a slower data read rate, but increased capabilities for reading near or on metal or liquid surfaces.
Most LF applications consist of read ranges from inches to a foot, although 1 meter of distance is possible but requires a large Tag and Reader Antenna.
This frequency band provides a short read range of 10 cm, and has slower read speed than the higher frequencies, but is not very sensitive to radio wave interference. The LF spectrum is not considered a truly global application because of slight differences in frequency and power
levels throughout the world.
Typical applications include:
Access Control & Security.
Identifying widgets through manufacturing processes or in harsh environments.
Ranch animal identification (ISO 11784/11785).
High-Frequency (HF) RFID
The HF band ranges from 3 to 30 MHz. Most HF RFID systems operate at 13.56 MHz with read ranges between 10 cm and 1 m. HF systems experience moderate sensitivity to interference. HF RFID is commonly used for ticketing, payment, and data transfer applications.
There are several HF RFID standards in place, such as the ISO 15693 standard for tracking items, and the ECMA-340 and ISO/IEC 18092 standards for Near Field Communication (NFC), a short range technology that is commonly used for data exchange between devices. Other HF standards include the ISO/IEC 14443 A and ISO/IEC 14443 standards for MIFARE technology, which used in smart cards and proximity cards, and the JIS X 6319-4 for FeliCa, which is a smart card system commonly used in electronic money cards.
Ultra-high frequency (UHF) RFID
The UHF frequency band covers the range from 300 MHz to 3 GHz. RAIN RFID systems comply with the UHF Gen2 standard and use the 860 to 960 MHz band. While there is some variance in frequency from region to region, RAIN RFID systems in most countries operate between 900 and 915 MHz.
What have to know before buy RFID Reader ?
It is hard to say which RFID hardware is more important than any of the others. We know a RFID solution including RFD card/RFID tag, RFID reader, RFID antenna hardware. All of these fundamental pieces are critical parts of a running and efficient RFID solution. The technology, quality, and correct deployment of RFID tags/RFID card and RFID readers/antennas are all crucial links inside the chain. With any of these RFID hardware, the entire RFID solution will fail.
The rfid reader is just as critical as those different pieces and can be seen as one of the important components to design, manufacture, and set up efficiently. The venture encountered with RFID readers is that a RFID reader must focused on two factors.
The primary is the factor with the rfid tags. The second one is the interface with the commercial enterprise community. There are numerous traits of an rfid reader that decide the styles of tags with which it can read. The most fundamental function is the protocols or frequencies at which the RFID reader’s radio communicates. Please kindly reference the above frequency and protocol. RFID readers and RFID cards/tags should communicate at the same frequency and protocol in order for them to match.
A few rfid readers can communicate at multiple frequencies. DO RFID reader manufacturer offers a dual-frequency rfid reader and tag product line. Supporting twin-frequency communications allows these styles of RFID readers to perform efficaciously in special RFID application.
RF can be strongly influenced by using its surroundings. Elements in the environment, including water and special types of metals can damage of rf based communications. Some of frequency with short read range, but some of frequency with long read range. Sure frequencies are proof against a number of these elements.
A key characterizes of an RFID reader is that how many tags it can be read at same time . Some RFID readers may be able to sample 10 tags a second while others may be able to sample 200 tags a second. The number of tags sampled per second is usually influenced by the following items:
The anti-collision algorithm used by the tags
The processing capabilities of the reader which usually maps to the type and speed of processor in the reader
The amount of memory in the reader
The capabilities of the digital signal processor in the reader’s radio
In most cases, the greater powerful the RFID reader is, the greater tags it could sample. It is vital to know the sampling traits of a RFID reader. If the reader cannot preserve up with the tag populace, it can be vital to obtain a extra superior reader or install extra readers to make sure that each one the tags are sampled. The rfid reader ought to also communicate the tags it reads with an software which could employ the information. We talked about the common interface of RFID readers before
Every of those interfaces have their advantage and disadvantage. Please choose the right interface for your RFID solution.
As soon as the RFID reader is attached to the commercial enterprise RFID software through a conversation interface, the RFID software have to configure, control, and acquire statistics from the RFID reader. RFID reader manufacturer offer management packagesor SKD for develop interface. The RFID reader manufacture may offer example source code that can be used to develop a software product that can communicate with the RFID reader, or the RFID reader factory may provide a pre-built set of software libraries that enable custom software applications to easily interface with their reader. Embedded RFID readers could be provide the sample reader hardware drivers for different operating systems such as Linux or Windows. When evaluating an RFID reader, it is important to take the software development interface into account. A well planned and documented development interface can save a great deal of time and money in the long run.RFID readers can report different types of information. First, they must report their status and configuration.
Second, the RFID reader have to report information about the RIFD tags what it reading . The most basic data what is include the tag’s unique identifier and timestamp of when the tag was read, the signal strength at which the tag was read, and any state information that the tag reported such as temperature, pressure, or acceleration if possible. The software development interface should handle the packaging and marshalling of this data from the RFID reader to the RFID software. The software program development interface ought to cope with the packaging and marshalling of this information from the reader to the software.Some more advanced RFID readers could report rfid event instead of every individual ping from a tag. RFID tag events can be defined as the distillation of rfid tag beacons into significate data. For example, when a tag enters or leaves the read range of the RFID reader, or while the tag change status in a few manners that should be inform to the RFID software.
The final attention when locating a reader that fits a particular hassle is the durability. Readers come in many extraordinary packaging alternatives. Some readers are navy grade at the same time as others are retail patron grade. The connection factors on the reader may vary based on the supposed use. Locking or sealed connectors may be required for answers where extreme moisture or vibration can be encountered. Enclosures can be plastic or thick steel and may have exhaust enthusiasts or other cooling mechanisms. The mounting options may vary from rack to ceiling brackets. All of those options have to be considered. Rfid readers are available many sizes, frequencies and with exclusive facts processing and reporting competencies. Expertise that characteristic is vital for designing an rfid solution with a view to function well and be maintainable.
The final consideration is durability RFID reader. you have to choose the suitable RFID reader for your RFID application. Extreme moisture or vibration application should choose the locking or sealed RFID reader.Enclosures may be plastic or thick steel and may have exhaust fans or other cooling mechanisms. The mounting options may vary from rack to ceiling brackets. All of these options must be taken into consideration.
Rfid readers are available many sizes, frequencies and with different data processing and reporting capabilities. Know those characteristics are vital for designing an rfid solution with a view to function well and be maintainable.
What are the most common types of communications interfaces with RFID readers?
RFID readers connect to host computers or networks and communicate data in a variety of ways. Connecting to a network allows readers more flexibility than being connected directly to a computer; instead, they are able to communicate with other programs and readers to create a connected and resolute system. The most common types of communications interfaces on this side of the reader are:
Serial – RS232 or RS422
Serial ports use either a 9 pin serial or USB cable to connect directly to a host computer. A serial connection is optimal for simple applications with one reader and host computer and no need for additional network capabilities.
The Wiegand interface is a de facto wiring standard which arose from the popularity of Wiegand effect card readers in the 1980s. It is commonly used to connect a card swipe mechanism to the rest of an access control system. The sensor in such a system is often a "Wiegand wire", based on the Wiegand effect .A Wiegand-compatible reader is normally connected to a Wiegand-compatible security panel.The Wiegand interface uses three wires, one of which is a common ground and two of which are data transmission wires usually called DATA0 and DATA1, alternately labeled "D0" and "D1" or "Data Low" and "Data High". When no data is being sent, both DATA0 and DATA1 are pulled up to the "high" voltage level — usually +5 VDC. When a 0 is sent the DATA0 wire is pulled to a low voltage while the DATA1 wire stays at a high voltage. When a 1 is sent the DATA1 wire is pulled to a low voltage while DATA0 stays at a high voltage.
The high signaling level of 5 VDC is used to accommodate long cable runs from card readers to the associated access control panel, typically located in a secure closet. Most card reader manufacturers publish a maximum cable run of 500 feet (150 m). An advantage of the Wiegand signaling format is that it allows very long cable runs, far longer than other interface standards of its day allowed.
IP (Ethernet) – TCP
A LAN, or Local Area Network, connection uses an Ethernet cable to join a network. Once on the network, the reader can interact with programs and other connected devices. If an application’s needs change and a Wi-Fi connection is required with a reader that is not Wi-Fi enabled, an Ethernet cable can be used to connect the reader to a wireless bridge, allowing the reader to have a Wi-Fi connection.
USB ports are multifunctional on RFID readers and their exact functionality is explained within each individual reader’s specifications. While the USB port may function differently on each reader, it can be used for data storage, data transfer, powering, or for additional ancillary capabilities such as adding a Wi-Fi dongle.
Bluetooth allows the reader to connect to a host computer while remaining wireless. Bluetooth options are generally available on handhelds – especially sleds – for connecting to smart devices like phones and tablets.
Connecting to a network or a host computer can be done via Wi-Fi for applications in a setting with a strong Wi-Fi connection. Wi-Fi connectivity provides a cordless, flexible option for RFID solutions. Wi-Fi and LAN ports are generally the only options if the application needs to be connected to a network. An additional advantage to an RFID reader on a network is the ability to connect a printer or other smart device to the RFID reader.
A mobile RFID reader with GPS capabilities is very useful in large deployments, especially those spanning hundreds of meters. GPS coordinates can be associated with the tag read, allowing users to note a defined location of the asset.
One of the newest features on RFID readers is the addition of an HDMI port. HDMI ports allow a display or monitor to be directly plugged into the reader.
Once the RFID reader is connected to the RFID application through a communication interface, the RFID application must then configure, control, and collect data from the reader. RFID reader manufacturers offer management applications that can complete these tasks and/or they supply a software application development interface. The manufacturer may deliver example source code that can be used to develop a software product that can communicate with the reader or the manufacture may provide a pre-built set of software libraries that enable custom software applications to easily interface with their reader. Embedded readers may be delivered with sample reader hardware drivers for different operating systems such as Linux or Windows. When evaluating an RFID reader, it is important to take the software development interface into account. A well planned and documented development interface can save a great deal of time and money in the long run.
RFID readers can report different types of information. First, they must report their status and configuration. Enterprise installations should be able to monitor the status of the deployed readers.
How to buy RFID Smart Card for your RFID system ?
RFID smart Card is including passive proximity card and contact card.
A contactless smart card is a contactless credential whose dimensions are credit-card size. Its embedded integrated circuits can store (and sometimes process) data and communicate with a RFID reader. Commonplace uses include transit tickets, bank cards and passports.
These RFID cards are popular use for door access feature and ability to track movement in and out of buildings and/or rooms. Hundreds of companies use RFID card , from schools and gyms to corporate offices.
With the latest RFID cards, you can print graphics on your cards adding another layer of security and quality to your organization. Most businesses using access cards today brand their cards with a company logo and add employee information to each card. The cards are thinner and more durable allowing for a great looking card with their employee’s name, photo, and title. Updating to the latest dural frequency RFID cards are an effective way to eliminate the need for employees and staff to carry two separate cards for access and identification. The durual frequency card with 2 different chip in one card.As one-card solutions become more popular in industries taking advantage of RFID, it’s important to stay current with the changing technology. Please kindly contact our expert to know the latest RFID news.
How to buy RFID passive tag for your RFID system ?
Passive RFID tags do not need a battery to work, as they can get energy from the electro-magnetic radiation while they proximity, the radio waves can be used to power a faraway transmitter. This is the principle of operation for passive RFID tags. Passive RFID tag manufacturers design their RFID tags to be efficient energy transmitter. This requires the RFID manufacturers to become very innovation with the RFID antenna designs that they attach to the tag’s central processing circuitry. The RFID tag antenna is the key component in the physics behind how energy is get from the electro-magnetic radiation generated by the antenna connected to a RFID reader. This interaction between the tag and the reader’s antenna is also known as coupling. So it is important to know that the RFID antenna is a key component in the function of the passive RFID tag.
Most RFID passive tags communicate with the RFID reader through a RF wave that originated from the RFID reader’s antenna. The passive RFID tag “tugs” on the carrier wave to create minute fluctuations in the wave’s amplitude. The amplitude changes are used to encode digital information to transmit to the RFID reader. The RFID reader must be able to detect these tiny changes while, at the same time, provide enough energy to power the RFID tag. Backscattering works much like a transformer does except that it occurs in free space. The RFID reader and RFID tag play the parts of two coils in the transformer. As the passive RFID tag shunts the coil through a transistor, the RFID reader’s side will detect a tiny drop in voltage. The RFID tag simply shunts the coil to encode the data that is to be transmitted.
Passive RFID tags can be made in many different form factors. The naked RFID tag is called the RFID inlay consisting of the integrated circuit and antenna only. Usually, the RFID inlay is deposited onto a substrate using a etching process (but, not electroplated). The substrate can be paper, polystyrene, FPC, PI or some other material. The RFID label tag is with paper cover and adhesive on back side. The paper is usually printed with a barcode that contains the RFID tag’s unique identifier so that the item can be identified with an RFID reader, barcode scanner, or by simply reading the number printed below the barcode. If a more durable passive tag is required, the tag may be encased in rubber, nylon, ABS, PCB or enclosed in plastic.
Passive RFID tags come in various sizes. Some RFID tags’ dimensions may be several millimeters or several feet the selection of antenna affects the read range of the RFID tag. Larger antennas allow tags to be read at a greater distance.
Once the passive RFID tag is powered and the coupling between the tag and reader has occurred, the transponder, the RFID tag, and the RFID reader, can now have a conversation as long as the RFID tag stays in close enough proximity to the RFID reader. The conversation that the two components have called air interface protocol. There are several organizations that are in the process of standardizing RFID protocols. Please kindly reference above RFID protocols.No matter which standard the RFID tag implements there are some basic commands that all passive RFID tags must implement to be effective. RFID Readers must be able to control the RFID tag population in an organized manner. If all RFID tags transmitted at the same time and without any order, the RFID reader may never be able to receive a single uninterrupted transmission from a RFID tag when the RFID tag population is high. RFID tags are usually selected by the RFID reader and given directions on when they are allowed to transmit. The EPC standard refers to a Q value which represents a seed number used to select subsets of the RFID tag’s population for interrogation. Other protocols have other methods to reach the same end.
Once a RFID tag has been selected, the RFID reader must be able to read the data from the RFID tag. If the RFID tag has onboard memory, the RFID reader can request that the RFID tag transmit a certain number of bytes from a given address in the RFID tag’s memory. Some RFID tags do not have extra memory, so they only transmit their unique identifier. Some protocols have access restrictions for different address regions in the RFID tag. To access these restricted regions, the reader must authenticate with the RFID tag. Authentication may be associated with only certain commands, or may be required of them all.
Some passive RFID tags allow RFID readers to write to the RFID tag’s user memory. Different RFID tag with different memory.
If the RFID tag supports writing, the reader transmits the starting memory address, the number of bytes to write, and the data to write beginning with the starting memory address.
The ‘kill’ command can be issued by the RFID reader to stop the RFID tag from ever transmitting again. This command usually has multiple parts because the RFID tag manufacturers want to make sure that the request to kill the RFID tag is deliberate. These are the basic types of commands that can be found in most standardized air interface protocols.
The deployment of a solution using passive RFID tags has some significant considerations. In this configuration RFID reader antennas are placed on each side of the path through which a RFID tag may go through. In loading dock scenarios, the RFID antennas may be placed above and/or below the path in addition to the sides. This configuration ensures that no matter which way the RFID tag is oriented, there will most likely be an RFID antenna that can power it. In some cases,RFID tags at the very center of a palette or container of goods may not be able to receive enough energy from the antennas in any configuration.
It have an added value because they can control the orientation of the tag and placement of the RFID tag on the goods being tracked. Real time location systems (RTLSs) place portals at each entry and exit way into a zone that is to be tracked. As RFID tags move in and out of these portals, the system can assume the RFID tag’s current physical location.
Passive tag prices get cheaper and cheaper, it is a great return on investment on RFID tags. We are able to tag every product for manage and tracking.
Please kindly find out the right passive tag for your application